UncategorizedPosts REsource REcovery and WAste TreatmeNT (REWANT)


The group started working in 2015 under the supervision of Dr. Zeshan. Starting with anaerobic treatment of solid waste and wastewater, it has evolved over time and currently involves various research areas as given in the following. The group lead has been involved in project conceptualization, methodology development, investigation, execution, monitoring and supervision as well as administration. The group has published the research results in various journals of international repute.

Research Areas

PhD students


MS Students


UG Projects

Research Project Details


  1. Enhancing biogas production from sewage sludge and ligno-cellulosic waste through nanoparticles assisted chemical pretreatment (NRPU 5997), National Research Program for Universities, Higher Education Commission

Role: PI

Amount: PKR 4.34 million (USD 42000)

Status: Complete


  1. Biogas production through dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (SRG 895), Start-up Research Grant, Higher Education Commission, Pakistan

Role: PI

Amount: PKR 0.5 million (USD 5000)

Status: Complete

  1. Development of biogas production system from waste sludge (NRPU 5996), National Research Program for Universities, Higher Education Commission

Role: Co-PI (PI: Dr Sher Jamal Khan)

Amount: PKR 5.36 million (USD 51000)

Status: Complete



ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7189-5102


  1. Nabia Furrukh Sohail, Zeshan*, Iftikhar, R., Saleem, S. (2023). Microalgal Treatment of High-Nutrient Wastewater using Twin Layer Cultivation System, Accepted for publication in Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering.
  2. Nadeem Ullah, Zeshan*, Malik Badshah (2022). Municipal wastewater treatment with corrugated PVC carrier anaerobic baffled reactor, Accepted for publication in Water Science and Technology.
  3. Sana Gohar Khan, Muhammad Hassan, Mustafa Anwar, Zeshan, Uneeb Masood Khan, Chao Zhao (2022) Mussel shell based CaO nano-catalyst doped with praseodymium to enhance biodiesel production from castor oil, Accepted for publication in Fuel.
  4. Saleem, S., Zeshan*, Iftikhar, R., Arshad, M., Zeeshan, M., & Hassan, M. (2022). Operation of microalgal horizontal twin layer system for treatment of real wastewater and production of lipids. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 48, 102932.
  5. Ahmad, W., Hassan, M., Zeshan, Masud, S. F. B., Kanwal, S., Singh, R. S., Anwar, M., … & Zhao, C. (2022). Proximate and elemental analysis of solid recovered fuel, its comparison with existing fossil fuels in terms of physical characteristics and economic benefits. Bioresource Technology Reports, 18, 101049.
  6. Khan, T. A., Liaquat, R., Zeshan, Khoja, A. H., & Bano, A. (2022). Biological carbon capture, growth kinetics and biomass composition of novel microalgal species. Bioresource Technology Reports, 17, 100982.
  7. Mushtaq, M., Zeshan*, Zeeshan, M., Nawaz, I., & Hassan, M. (2022). Effect of low levels of oxytetracycline on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure. Bioresource Technology, 126894.
  8. Saleem, S., Zeshan*, Iftikhar, R., Zafar, M. I., & Sohail, N. F. (2021). Growth Kinetics of Microalgae Cultivated in Different Dilutions of Fresh Leachate for Sustainable Nutrient Recovery and Carbon Fixation. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 108299.
  9. Muhammad Usman Saleem, Sher Jamal Khan, Zeshan, HMA Shehzad (2022). Performance Evaluation of Integrated Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors for Treatment of Real Textile Wastewater, Accepted for publication in International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.
  10. Tehsin Fatma, Zeeshan Zafar, Sidra Fatima, Rehan Zafar Paracha, Fazal Adnan, Zeshan, Nasar Virk, Muhammad Faraz Bhatti (2021). Computational Assessment of Botrytis cinerea Lipase for Biofuel Production, Catalysts. 11(11) 1319.
  11. Qurrat ul ain Rana, Muhammad Adil Nawaz Khan, Zeshan Shiekh, Saleha Parveen, Safia Ahmed, Muhammad Irfan, Rahul Gauttam, Aamer Ali Shah, Asif Jamal, Samiullah Khan, Malik Badshah, Malik Badshah (2022). Production of Bioethanol and Biogas from Spirodela polyrhiza in a Biorefinery Concept and Output Energy Analysis of the Process Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, Accepted for publication in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery.
  12. Hafiz Muhammad Aamir Shahzad, Sher Jamal Khan, Zeshan Sheikh, Yousuf Jamal, Zunaira Habib (2021). Evaluating the performance of anaerobic moving bed bioreactor and upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor for treating textile desizing wastewater. Accepted for publication in Biochemical Engineering Journal.
  13. Saadia Meraj, Rabia Liaquat, Salman Raza Naqvi, Zeshan Sheikh, Atoofa Zainab, Asif Hussain Khoja, Dagmar Juchelkova, Abdulaziz Atabani (2021). Enhanced Methane Production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Wheat Straw Rice Straw and Sugarcane Bagasse: A Kinetic Analysis. Applied Sciences, 11(13), 6069.
  14. Khan, S. R., Zeeshan, M., Khokhar, M. F., Zeshan & Ahmad, I. (2021). A comprehensive study on upgradation of pyrolysis products through co-feeding of waste tire into rice straw under broad range of co-feed ratios in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-15.
  15. Shiza Aslam, Faizan Ali, Amna Naseer, Zeshan Sheikh (2021). Application of material flow analysis for the assessment of current municipal solid waste management in Karachi, Pakistan. Accepted for publication in Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy (WM&R).
  16. Tahir Mehmood, Kousain Kousar, Hina Arshad, Mudassir Iqbal and Zeshan (2021). Effect of solvents on extraction of bioactive substances from Citrullus colocynthis and their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 55(3), DOI 10.1007/s11094-021-02411-2
  17. Ayesha Maryam, Zeshan*, Malik Badshah, Mariam Sabeeh, Sher Jamal Khan (2021). Enhancing methane production from dewatered waste activated sludge through alkaline and photocatalytic pretreatment, Bioresource Technology, 325, 124677.
  18. Rajput, A. A., Zeshan*, Hassan, M. (2021). Enhancing biogas production through co-digestion and thermal pretreatment of wheat straw and sunflower meal, Renewable Energy, 168, 1 – 10.
  19. Sabeeh, M., Zeshan*, Liaquat, R., & Maryam, A. (2020). Effect of alkaline and alkaline-photocatalytic pretreatment on characteristics and biogas production of rice straw. Bioresource Technology, 309, 123449.
  20. Hafiz Muhammad Aamir Shahzad, Charel Baumann, Sher Jamal Khan, Harald Schönberger, Frank-Andreas Weber, Zeshan. (2020). Performance evaluation of anaerobic moving bed bioreactor (An-MBBR) for pretreatment of desizing wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, 181: 123–130.
  21. Ullah, Z. and Zeshan*. (2020). Effect of Substrate Type and Concentration on the Performance of a Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell, Water Science and Technology, 81(7), 1336 – 1344. https://doi.org/10.2166/ wst.2019.387.
  22. Iqbal, A., Mushtaq, M. U., Khan, A. H. A., Nawaz, I., Yousaf, S., Zeshan & Iqbal, M. (2019). Influence of Pseudomonas japonica and organic amendments on the growth and metal tolerance of Celosia argentea L. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 24671 – 24785.
  23. Rajput, A.A., Zeshan. (2019). Effect of inoculum type and organic loading on biogas production of sunflower meal and wheat straw, Sustainable Environment Research, 29:4, 1-10.
  24. Khalid, M.J., Zeshan*, Waqas, A. and Nawaz I. (2019). Synergistic Effect of Alkaline Pretreatment and Magnetite Nanoparticle Application on Biogas Production from Rice Straw. Bioresource Technology, 275, 288-296.
  25. Rajput, A.A., Zeshan*, Visvanathan, C. (2018). Effect of thermal pretreatment on chemical composition, physical structure and biogas production kinetics of wheat straw, Journal of Environmental Management, 221, 45-52.
  26. Hussain, F., Hussain, I., Khan, A. H. A., Muhammad, Y. S., Iqbal, M., Soja, G., Reichenauer, T. G. Zeshan& Yousaf, S. (2018). Combined application of biochar, compost, and bacterial consortia with Italian ryegrass enhanced phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 153, 80-88.
  27. Waqas, A., Ji, J., Bahadar, A., Xu, L., Zeshan, & Modjinou, M. (2018). Thermal management of conventional photovoltaic module using phase change materials – An experimental investigation. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 37(5): 1516-1540.
  28. Waqas, A., Ji, J., Xu, L., Ali, M., Zeshan & Alvi, J. (2018). Thermal and electrical management of photovoltaic panels using phase change materials–A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 92, 254-271.
  29. Batool, A. and Zeshan (2017). Effect of Chelators and Substrates on Phytoremediation of Synthetic Leachate for Removal of Trace Elements, Soil and Sediment Contamination, 26(2): 220–233.
  30. Ajmal, A., I. Majeed, R. N. Malik, M. Iqbal, M. Arif Nadeem, I. Hussain, S. Yousuf, Zeshan, G. Mustafa, M. I. Zafar, and M. Amtiaz Nadeem. (2016). Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes on Cu2O-CuO/TiO2 anatase powders. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4 (2): 2138-2146.
  31. Jabeen, M., Zeshan*, Yousaf, S., Haider, M.R. and Malik, R.N. (2015). High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and rice husk at different organic loading rates. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 102: 149-153.
  32. Haider, M.R., Zeshan*, Yousaf, S., Malik, R.N. and Visvanathan, C. (2015). Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Rice Husk: Effect of Different Co-Substrate Mixtures and Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on Biogas Production. Bioresource Technology. 190C: 451-457.
  33. Zeshan* and Visvanathan, C. (2014). Evaluation of anaerobic digestate for greenhouse gas emissions at various stages of its management. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 95: 167-175.
  34. Zeshan*, Karthikeyan, O.P. and Visvanathan C. (2012). Effect of C/N ratio and ammonia-N accumulation in a pilot-scale thermophilic dry anaerobic digester. Bioresource Technology, 113: 294-302.


*   Corresponding Author/First Author




  1. Zia Ullah, Zeshan (2022). Assessment of Algae-assisted Microbial fuel Cell Performance for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Recovery Using Two Different Wastewaters as Catholyte. 14th International Conference on Sustainable Energy & Environmental Protection, (SEEP-2022), September 12- 15, 2022, London, UK.
  2. Shanza Shabbir, Zeshan, Zia Ullah (2022). Wastewater Treatment and Simultaneous Production of Biogas and Electricity Generation by Algae-assisted Microbial Feul Cell. 2nd International Conference on Water, Energy and Environment for Sustainability, (ICWEES-2022), August 17-18, 2022, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  3. Zia Ullah, Zeshan (2022. Assessment of the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Recovery. 2nd International Conference on Water, Energy, and Environment for Sustainability, (IC-WEES-2022), August 17-18, 2022, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  4. Sahar Saleem, Zeshan, Rashid Iftikhar, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Hassan (2021). Operation of Inclined Porous Substrate Bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae and Sustainable Biodiesel-Lipid Production. 13th International Conference on Sustainable Energy & Environmental Protection, September 13th – 16th, University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, Austria.
  5. Nayyera Farooq, Rabia, Liaquat, Zeshan (2019). Effect of Mixing Ratios of News Paper Waste and Green Vegetable Waste Co-digestion on Biogas Production. 1st National Symposium on Advanced Energy Materials, (AEM-2019), August 27-28, 2019, PINSTECH, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  6. Khalid, M.J., (2018). “Physico-chemical Characteristics of Rice Straw Pretreated with Sodium Hydroxide”. 2nd International Conference on Energy Systems for Sustainable Development, (ESSD 2018), 21-23 Febuary, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
  7. Z., Zeshan, Arshad.M. (2017). “Effect of Different Types of Substrates on the Performance of Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell”. 7th International Conference on Environmentally Sustainable Development, (ESdev-VII), 26-28 AUGUST, CIIT, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
  8. Rajput, A.A., Zeshan, Hashmi, I., Khan, S.J and Hassan, S. (2017). “Comparison of Inoculum Type on the Biogas Production of Wheat Straw at Lower and Higher Organic Loading”. Ist Young Researcher National Conference on Water and Environment, (NCWE 2017), 22-23 MAY, MUET, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
  9. Batool, A., Zeshan, M, Arshad., S, J. Khan. (2017). Effect of substrates on phytoremediation of trace metals from solid waste leachate. International Conference on Bio Approaches for Environment and sustainability, 22nd – 23rd Feb, 2017. NUST. Islamabad.
  10. Shiza Aslam, Rimsha Zafar, Nauman Akber, Zeshan (2017). Hand Driven Energy Efficient Reactor for Biogas Production From Organic Solid Waste. First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Earth and Environmental Sciences, March 09-10, 2017, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  11. Zeshan and Visvanathan, C. (2015). Start-Up of Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste, 2nd Conference on Emerging Materials and Processes (CEMP-2015), 22-23 December, 2015, SCME, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  12. Haider, M.R., Zeshan and Yousaf, S. (2014). “Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Rice Husk: Effect of Co-Substrate Mixing Ratios and Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on Biogas Production”, 7th Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science & Engineering (CESE 2014), 12-16 October, 2014, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
  13. Jabeen, M., Zeshan and Yousaf, S. (2014). “Continuous high solids co-digestion of food waste and rice husk under mesophilic conditions at pilot scale”, 7th Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science & Engineering (CESE 2014), 12-16 October, 2014, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
  14. Zeshan and Visvanathan, C. (2013). “Digestate management from perspectives of GHG emissions”, 6th Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science & Engineering (CESE 2013), 29 October-2 November, 2013, Daegu, Korea.
  15. Zeshan and Visvanathan, C. (2013). “Effect of organic loading rate on the performance of a pilot-scale thermophilic dry anaerobic digester under high recirculation rate”, 6th Annual Conference on the Challenges in Environmental Science & Engineering (CESE 2013), 29 October – 2 November 2013, Daegu, Korea.
  16. Zeshan and Visvanathan C. (2012). Dry anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Potentials and problems. Presented in 2nd International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, 26 April 2012, Bangkok, Thailand.
  17. Zeshan and Visvanathan C. (2011). Ammonia inhibition in dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Presented in 4th International Conference on Challenges in Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE 2011), 25-30 September, 2011, Tainan, Taiwan.
  18. Zeshan and Shakya, S. (2010). CSR activities in Thailand. Young environmental leaders summit 2010. 19-23 August, Hokkaido, Japan.